Multicrew, létání ve vícečlenné posádce
MCC je letecká zkratka z anglického Multi Crew Cooperation, tedy česky Koordinace vícečlenné posádky letadla. Aplikuje se u velkých dopravních letadel. Pro velké dopravní letouny se požaduje vedle kvalifikací pro letecký personál dle JAA specifikací také nácvik MCC koordinace a vedle osvědčení o odborné a zdravotní způsobilosti musí mít každý člen letové posádky také certifikát o MCC trainingu.
Obecné dokumenty o MCC
- Multicrew Aircraft Standard Operating Procedures od Transport Canada. http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/civilaviation/standards/commerce-manuals-multicrewsop-menu-1796.htm Podle mě nejlepší z toho co jsem našel, obsahuje úplně všechno - všechny briefingy, checky atd. Nepochopil jsem z toho jeslti to je pro nějaké jejich konkrétní letadlo, nebo jen obecně, ale tak jako tak je asi většina aplikovatelná všude
- Take off briefing na 737 http://home.arcor.de/berlin-rundflug/download/TR-B737-Take-Off-Briefing_vTOBB737-20050331.pdf zase nedávám do SOPů, protože to asi pro nás může ve spolupráci s předchozími dokumenty být užitečné i u jiných letadel, obzvláště těch boeingu podobných (jo, narážim na MD82 :))
MCC SOPy pro konkrétní letadla
- B737 http://home.arcor.de/berlin-rundflug/download/TR-MCC-B737-Handbook-A5_vTMHBB73720050407.pdf
- A320 nouzové postupy + detailní rozpisy některých flight patterns: http://www.smartcockpit.com/ sekce INSTRUCTOR’S CORNER
- A330 nouzové postupy + detailní rozpisy některých flight patterns: http://www.smartcockpit.com// sekce INSTRUCTOR’S CORNER
- A340 nouzové postupy + detailní rozpisy některých flight patterns: http://www.smartcockpit.com/ sekce INSTRUCTOR’S CORNER
- MD80 familly nouzové postupy + detailní rozpisy některých flight patterns - omezeně: http://www.smartcockpit.com/ sekce FLIGHT PATTERNS
- MD90 nouzové postupy + detailní rozpisy některých flight patterns - omezeně: http://www.smartcockpit.com/ sekce FLIGHT PATTERNS
- SAAB 340 nouzové postupy + detailní rozpisy některých flight patterns - velmi velmi omezeně: http://www.smartcockpit.com/ sekce FLIGHT PATTERNS
- SAAB 2000 nouzové postupy + detailní rozpisy některých flight patterns - velmi velmi omezeně: http://www.smartcockpit.com/ sekce FLIGHT PATTERNS
Briefingy během letu (Thomas Cook briefingy 757)
BRIEFINGS GENERAL - The purpose of a briefing is to ensure that both pilots are aware of and agree with a proposed plan of action. The pilot giving the briefing should make it clear and concise. Apart from the full emergency brief, which should be given on the first of a series of consecutive sectors, it is not necessary to recite SOPs. - When experienced crews are operating together, into or from airfields which are familiar to both of them, briefings may be shortened to essential points. If using shortened briefings in this manner crews may use a question and answer style of briefing in order to fully involve both pilots in the briefing. - Many factors do require variable emphasis depending on the area, the runway, and conditions. The briefing should leave no doubt as to the normal and emergency procedures, which will be carried out in the circumstances prevailing. Should any doubt exist in the mind of the pilot being briefed, he is to clarify that uncertainty before the briefing stage is passed. - Both pilots must confirm that they are referring to the same plates and charts by date and serial number before briefing navigation procedures.
TAKE-OFF BRIEFING Take-off and departure briefings are normally given by PF in the aeroplane on the ramp before starting engines. PF should set up the navaids, and where possible the speed bugs, prior to the briefing.
Pilots should establish a regular briefing format to include the following items: • Which pilot will handle the controls; • Weather at departure aerodrome and take-off alternate if required; • Take-off runway and condition; • 767, 752 or 753 rotation rate; • Ice protection and prevention requirements; • Flap, packs, and thrust settings (if known); • SID, noise and altitude restrictions; • Transition altitude, MSA and terrain from plates, and MORA from CFP; • AFDS and TMS modes; • Emergency briefing – to include where appropriate: – Emergency Turn/Engine Out Procedure (include anticipated configuration to be flown); – Intentions in the event of engine failure below TOC MORA. • Questions?
The Take-off brief must be reviewed and updated later prior to the Before Take-off Checks, using the R I S E acronym: • Runway in use and performance • Instrument Departure • Stop Altitude • E-Turn/Engine Out Procedure
EMERGENCY BRIEF The emergency brief should include the following items:
Engine Start and Taxi-out In the event of an emergency during engine start or taxi-out CM1 will stop the aeroplane and select the park brake on, initiate and supervise the non-normal procedures, liaise with the SCCM, and direct an evacuation if necessary. CM2 will communicate with ATC on command of CM1.
Before V1 - Up to 80 kts the aeroplane should be stopped for any significant malfunction. - Between 80 kts and V1 the aeroplane should be stopped in the event of engine failure confirmed by two parameters (one of which should be on EICAS), any fire warning, obstructed runway, predictive windshear warning, or any adverse condition affecting the safety of flight. - During normal line operations the decision to reject take-off at any time lies solely with the Captain/CM1 as briefed. CM2 should bring the defect to the attention of CM1, who should then make the executive call of “STOP”. - When two qualified Captains fly together, either may call STOP. - Regardless of who is the PF, CM1 will always be responsible for carrying out the RTO procedure. • Close the thrust levers. • Disengage the autothrottle. • Verify RTO operation of autobrakes. In the event of autobrake failure or there being no RTO fitted to the aircraft, maximum manual wheel braking must be applied. • Deploy full speedbrake. • Apply maximum reverse thrust consistent with directional control and conditions. • Bring the aircraft to a stop and apply the parking brake. - When carrying out the touch drill for the “Stop Actions”, CM1 should be looking outside the aircraft. - The PM will announce ‘ENGINE FAILURE’ or ‘FIRE WARNING’, or any other condition adversely affecting the safety of flight. Should CM1 decide to continue the take-off despite a call from CM2, he will call ‘CONTINUE’. - CM2 should verify the stop actions, call out any omissions and advise ATC. During the deceleration he should call ‘60 knots’ IAS. - Once the decision to stop has been made, use maximum effort braking to a complete standstill. If a fire warning is present, consideration should be given to stopping the aircraft such that the fire is on the downwind side. Only when it has been positively established that an evacuation is not necessary should the aeroplane be taxied off the runway. If another take-off is planned, review the Brake Cooling Schedule located in the QRH. - Rejecting the take-off after V1 should never be considered unless exceptional circumstances prevail (e.g. double engine failure) and the Captain/CM1 considers the aircraft incapable of flight. In this case it is unlikely the RTO will be entirely successful. Furthermore, it should be understood that even if excess runway remains after reaching V1, there is no assurance the brakes will have the capacity to stop the aircraft prior to the end of the runway.
After V1 - PF will select or call for GA thrust if desired and fly Emergency Turn or Engine Out Procedure. - The Engine Out procedure, is normally to be followed as SOP and may only be deviated from for very good reason and must then be explicitly briefed. - The PM will automatically set 15 degrees on the bank angle selector when the PF requests “HEADING SELECT”. All turns below V2 + 15 must be made at 15 degrees angle of bank maximum (unless specified in company emergency turn procedure). PM will then reselect 25 degrees on the bank angle selector when PF requests “Flight Level Change, Max Continuous Thrust”. - At a safe altitude, not below 400 ft AAL with the aeroplane under control both pilots will confirm the failure and if necessary PF will call for the non-normal recall procedures. The PM will carry out these memory items monitored by the PF. The PF will close the appropriate thrust lever if specified by a QRH drill. PM will disarm the autothrottle in the event of engine failure with no recall drills. - Both pilots must confirm the correct action is going to be taken before operating a thrust lever, fuel control switch or engine fire switch. - QRH drills should be completed when flap retraction is complete. - PF is responsible for flying the aeroplane, its flight path and airspeed control, configuration and navigation. - PM is responsible for monitoring PF’s flying for safety and accuracy, confirming that GA thrust is applied (if desired), gear selected up, emergency turn initiated, identifying the failure and reading and executing checklists and non-normal procedures. - When PM is carrying out QRH drills, PF should be responsible for R/T communications. - Do not attempt a role change before the completion of the net flight path profile except where safety of flight is at risk.
APPROACH BRIEFING - The descent and approach briefing should be carried out by the PF prior to commencing the descent, and updated if circumstances change. A full instrument approach briefing should be given even if VMC conditions are indicated at the destination aerodrome, although in this case a briefing on the expected visual or shortened procedure should be covered also. PM will confirm the plates, charts, navaids and speed bugs in use. - When an approach briefing is conducted for the home base of both pilots then the brief may be abbreviated if both pilots agree they are fully familiar with the procedure. - The PF will review the plates and charts and set up the navaids and speed bugs prior to carrying out the briefing. - The autopilot should be engaged or control of the aeroplane may be given to the other pilot whilst the briefing is in progress.
- The following items should be included: • NOTAMS. • Aircraft technical status. • Category B or C brief if relevant. • Weather at destination and alternate aerodromes, including runway surface conditions and crosswinds. • Top of descent point. • MORA from CFP, and terrain and MSA from Plates. • STAR or arrival route, holding facility, altitude and speed restrictions. • The Instrument Approach Plate covering the horizontal and vertical approach profile, radio aids, fix crossing altitudes and approach minima. • Flap setting, anti-icing, approach speed, wind additives and use of wipers. • Runway brief including touchdown elevation, lighting, landing distance, use of autobrakes and reverse thrust, (full reverse thrust to be used unless idle reverse briefed). • Missed approach procedure, to include an engine inoperative scenario. • Contingency procedures in the event of discontinuing a GNSS/GPS Approach. • Navaid selections. • Fuel remaining, alternate requirements and intention. PF should then ask if PM has any questions about the planned approach.